Summary: Organizations and Movements

Organizations and movements employ psychological tactics to build themselves up and keep themselves going. Some try to tear people way from family and friends. Group cohesion is also maintained by demonizing enemies and expelling dissidents from group membership.

Industrial/Organization psychology is a specialized form of social psychology applied to businesses and corporations. Personnel psychologists help to hire and care for employees. They increasingly look for employees who know how to communicate and how to get along with other people in complex, shifting work environments. Some psychologists do market research and help to develop effective advertising strategies for companies. Others serve as consumer advocates.

Human factors psychology is the study of machine/human interactions. It can help insure that machines, technologies, and consumer products are practical and convenient to operate. Organizational psychology studies the structure of organizations and, increasingly, the active processes of goal setting and communicating required of modern work teams.

Leadership styles in business have changed in the past several decades to emphasize more bottom-up participation of workers, who are often asked to suggest improvements in manufacturing and other business procedures. Self-management is increasingly common in businesses, as employees are encouraged to analyze their own performance and set their own goals.


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